China : Shandong Culture Heritage Sector Review

I. Project Background .......................................................................................................... 3
B. Historical Significance of Confucius and Mencius .......................................................... 3
A. Qufu and Zoucheng .......................................................................................................... 3
II. Key Development Issues................................................................................................... 4
C. Urban Design Considerations ........................................................................................... 6
A. Physical Decay of Cultural Heritage Assets ..................................................................... 4
B. Environmental Conditions in Historic Cities. ................................................................... 6
D. Weak Tourism Management............................................................................................. 7
A. National ............................................................................................................................ 8
E. Insufficient Access to Basic Infrastructure Services ......................................................... 8
III. Institutional Environment ................................................................................................ 8
B. Regional ............................................................................................................................ 9
B. Zoucheng tourism market analysis ................................................................................. 11
C. Local ................................................................................................................................. 9
IV. Qufu and Zoucheng tourism market analysis ................................................................ 10
Annex 1: Key Data .............................................................................................................. 12
A. Qufu tourism market analysis ......................................................................................... 10
poor area in the South-West of Shandong Province. The area was home to some of
Annex 2: Profile of Zoucheng Municipal Cultural Relic and Tourism Bureau .................. 14
Annex 3: UNESCO World Heritage Site Advisory Body Evaluation of the Temple of
Annex 4: Maps of the Project Area ..................................................................................... 19
Confucius, the Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu ... 17
I. Project Background A. Qufu and Zoucheng
affluent, with a population of 1.1 million, a surface area of 1,613 km2, and GDP per capita
1. Qufu and Zoucheng are two neighboring county-level cities in Jining Municipality, a
China’s earliest civilizations, and rich in cultural heritage assets. Cultural heritage assets in
complex, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as well as over 100 national-level cultural
the project area include the Confucius Temple, Kong family mansion, and burial grounds
heritage assets.
Province. Zoucheng is located to the South of Qufu, and is both larger and somewhat more
2. Qufu has a population of 640,000, covers an area of 896 km2, and is poor, with GDP
per capita of Y31,767 (US$4,637), significantly lower than the average of Shandong
4. Cultural heritage assets in Qufu and Zoucheng, include the Confucius Temple, Kong
of Y39,790 (US$5,809). Zoucheng has a developed coal mining and power sector.
3. The number of tourists visiting the two historic cities of Qufu and Zoucheng has been
steadily growing in recent years, reaching 9.7 million visitors in 2008, generating revenues
of RMB 4.2 billion. In Qufu, tourism accounted for 15.1% of GDP and in Zoucheng for
mainly on day trips by car, 40% come from other surrounding cities and provinces, usually
3.6%. Of the tourists, approximately 40% of come from within Shandong Province,
by tour group, 16% come from other Chinese cities, and about 4% come from foreign
cities; and many other heritage assets relating to Confucianism and the roots of Chinese
Family Mansion, and Burial Grounds Complex. These cultural heritage assets have been
recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, due to their “outstanding universal
significance,�? for “representing a masterpiece of human creative genius,�? and for being
“an architectural ensemble which illustrates a significant stage in human history.�? In
assets, including the ruins of the temple, mansion, and cemetery of Mencius; the birthplace
addition to these major sites, the two cities have over 100 national-level cultural heritage
of Confucius, with ancient temples and libraries; the two Ming Dynasty historic walled
B. Historical Significance of Confucius and Mencius
5. Although tourist arrivals have been rapidly growing in recent years, visitors have little
information, incentive or opportunity to spend more time and money. Out of 9.7 million
average spending RMB 392 per stay. In Zoucheng, the average stay was only 0.3 days,
tourists that visited the two cities in 2008, their average stay was only 0.6 days and
spending RMB 200 per stay. The average annual per capita disposable income in Qufu
tourists, the local population derives limited benefits from tourism.
was Y4,479 (US$654) in 2008, marginally below the poverty line of $2 per day, and lower
than the average in Shandong Province, indicating that despite the large numbers of
thoughts, stressing benevolent government, thus putting Confucianism at the core of
1. Confucius (551-479 BC), born earlier than Socrates, and contemporary to
Sakyamuni (Buddha), was one of the three philosophers considered as the world’s greatest
ancient thinkers that profoundly influenced human history. Confucius was a renowned
belief that he created was adopted as the pre-eminent ideology in feudal Chinese society
philosopher, politician, and educator in the Spring and Autumn Period. The system of
societal bonds and ethics.
for more than two thousand years: he was the “Sacred First Teacher�? and Sacred Model
Teacher for Ten Thousand Years�?. Confucius’ theories emphasized the importance of
3. The lives and activities of Confucius and Mencius for the largest part took place in
2. Mencius was born 180 years after Confucius. He inherited and passed on Confucius’
Chinese culture. Confucius’ and Mencius’ strain of Confucianism became mainstream
Chinese culture by the time of the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), particularly as it was
transformed and re-explained by the rulers as national philosophy. As such, Confucianism
shaped the culture of China and beyond, especially including also Japan and Korea.
ancient Chinese civilization, but at the same time has been held to be an obstruction in
Therefore Confucianism is essential to understanding of Chinese traditional, and even
contemporary, culture. The school of thought stands as the most important factor in
be erected in 1244 and in 1331 Kong Sihui began building the wall and gate of the
modern times, as Confucian thought has in the past been distorted and abused by those in
cultural and administrative center up to the Qin Dynasty. The space between Qufu and
Qufu and Zoucheng. Qufu was the capital to the Lu state 3000 years ago, being China’s
Zoucheng carries Confucius’and Mencius’ culture through time, preserving profound and
abundant heritage.
tomb in the form of an axe, with a brick platform for sacrifices. When Emperor Wu Di of
4. Confucius was buried on the bank of the Si River, 1 km north of Qufu, beneath a
schools of thought and respect only Confucianism�?, the Tomb became an important place
the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 24) accepted proposals to “eliminate the hundred
of veneration and pilgrimage, and was progressively enlarged and ornamented in the
Cemetery, and this work continued with the addition of gate towers, arches, pavilions, and
following centuries. By the 2nd century AD more than fifty tombs of Confucius’s
descendants had accumulated around the main tomb. Stelae commemorating him began to
stabilization and repair. The ancient paintings on the structures have badly weathered, and
the access road from the north gate of the city of Qufu (1594). By the late 18th century the
Cemetery was extended to cover an area of 3.6 km’, enclosed by a perimeter wall of over
6. The cultural heritage assets inside the walled cities of Qufu and Zoucheng are not
7 km.
II. Key Development Issues
A. Physical Decay of Cultural Heritage Assets
mansions of Confucius and Mencius have not been significantly repaired or maintained
adequately maintained, protected, or preserved. About two thirds of the temples and
7. From a technical point of view, about a third of the timber sections show signs of
since the Cultural Revolution in the 60s and the country’s liberation in the 40s; and about
a third have had no repair since the Ming Dynasty (over 300 years ago).
Cultural heritage assets should thrive of life, events, and learning activities. Cultural
structural weakness (i.e., sagging) and serious weathering, and are in urgent need of
amateurish attempts at repainting are visible. Over 1,000 steles have serious weather
damage. Few of the unique traditional buildings inside the walled cities remain, and some
are under risk of collapse. Most other traditional buildings have been rebuilt, without any
planning controls, as unattractive crowded houses devoid of the traditional architectural
8. Only a small fraction of the entrance fees is allocated to maintenance and repair of the
features necessary in a historic city.
are severely under-funded, and not managed with the necessary expertise.
cultural heritage assets (about 20% of the required budget). Ongoing repair programs
highlight issues and recommendations relating to cultural heritage preservation and
9. Cultural Heritage Preservation and Presentation. The seven points below
time visiting them, and they are not linked to the daily life of the local citizens.
(i) Overall, the cultural heritage assets are underutilized, the tourists spend only little
compromise their cultural heritage assets and therefore should be avoided.
heritage assets can be preserved effectively only if they are kept in use, otherwise
any efforts to preserve them cannot be justified economically.
millions of tourists that visit them spend only little time enjoying their magnificent
(ii) Presentation of cultural heritage assets should be redesigned in its entirety, as the
cultural heritage assets, their visits are poorly managed and presentation needs
beauty. The local citizens and the tourists are not fully informed of the value of the
activities selling local products should be located nearby the cultural heritage assets,
(iii) Much more attention should be paid to ensure a comprehensive experience to the
visitors (arriving, learning, visiting, refreshing, and leaving), and commercial
(iv) Uncontrolled or poorly controlled urban development in the historic cities could
leveraging these assets as a branding opportunity for the entire territory in which
they are located.
(vi) Fire dangers exist at the Mencius tomb and cemetery, as well as the Confucius
(v) Urban development in historic cities inspired to mere reconstructions of old-style
buildings should be avoided carefully, as such approach would create a pastiche,
with negative consequence on the attractiveness of the historic cities and on the
value of the existing historic buildings. Indeed, proper urban upgrading and block
of architecture that looks at the tradition without replicating it. It “sympathizes�? with
reconstruction is encouraged, but new buildings should sympathize with the ancient
ones without imitating them. The Confucius Academy is a good example of a piece
and colors. It has its own aesthetic dignity, and it is not a copy or a sterile replica of
the historic urban environment, but it has been built with modern techniques, forms,
ancient styles. The same approach that inspired the design of this good building
of cultural heritage assets, renewal of traditional housing and infrastructure, based
should be applied to any other redevelopment in the historic cities. cemetery.
B. Environmental Conditions in Historic Cities.
10. The three points below highlight issues relating to Environmental Conditions in
Historic Cities.
(i) The environment around the cultural heritage assets is deteriorating. A decaying
cultural heritage asset in the midst of a poor and deteriorating environment will
Maintenance of local, national, and World Heritage sites is not taking place
continue to lose its appeal to visitors and potential to generate revenues.
properly, probably because annual and regular budgets are not available.
the historic city. Poorly controlled development continues. The city moats have
Surrounding buildings do not meet acceptable standards and do not sympathize with
wastewater outfalls, solid waste collection is below standards, and plastic bags litter
attractions of the historic cities disappear. Therefore, preservation and maintenance
the moats and surrounding areas. Available development control regulations do not
appear to be enforced. Decisive action is required to reverse the trend before the
should sympathize, but not imitate historic ones. Land values in the historic cities are
on a long-term plan, are urgent, along with an effective development control
regulations that includes enforcement.
associated with the major urban heritage assets and buffer zones should be reduced.
(ii) The quality of the urban environment should be enhanced, and the poverty
cultural heritage assets will detract from the heritage values if there setting is not
The cities are at a critical stage in their development and the areas around the
China’s reputation for presenting heritage to the world, and the intangible
maintained. Tourists will be deterred from appreciating China’s greatest heritage,
significance of its philosophers could be affected.
11. Urban planning in historic cities needs to be modernized, while retaining
(iii) Insufficient city servicing and cleanliness can make the cities unattractive,
especially the rivers and water systems. C. Urban Design Considerations
development controls and their enforcement is resulting in landscapes which are
compatibility with the traditional character of the historic cities, and new buildings
low relative to their potential opportunity cost. With the allocation of more land for
sustainable tourism functions under the historic cities plans, optimized use of the
remaining residential land becomes a necessity. Land needs to be used more
for the blocks selected for the project, a development plan that optimizes land use for
productively in any redevelopment planning. Prior to developing upgrading proposals
planning and investigate the best density to maintain and enhance land values in the
the entire historic cities needs to be designed. This plan would enable infrastructure
historic cities addressed by the project.
architectural controls, and have a very low density. Development control is lacking
12. Lack of Development Control in Historic Cities. New construction within the
walled historic cities takes place without conforming to any building standards or
Heritage (SACH). The non-adherence to SACH guidelines and the lack of
even within the 200 m buffer zones around the heritage assets, for which there are
requirements specified under the regulations of the State Administration of Cultural
protection of cultural heritage assets, as well as the development of the tourism industry.
unattractive to domestic and international visitors and threatens to compromise the
value of the cultural heritage and their potential to generate revenues.
13. Engineering Design Considerations. Key design issues that need to be addressed
during project preparation include:
(i) Designing water supply and wastewater networks for the historic cities, using
optimization techniques to determine the size of networks that will be installed in
the selected project sites;
(iii) Studying the role of septic tanks with the availability of sewer systems;
(ii) Arranging water supply and sewer connections to ensure early connections and
utilization of services;
(iv) Verifying the adequacy of off-site infrastructure facilities, e.g., adequate water
14. The cultural heritage assets further suffer from poor presentation and interpretation,
supply, and wastewater treatment capacity; and
(v) Arranging accurate infrastructure mapping records.
D. Weak Tourism Management
and lack of adequate tourist facilities. In Qufu, the Cultural Relics Management
70% of residents in the historic cities are former farmers, who lack specific skills. The last
Commission is responsible for the protection, repair and management of cultural heritage
assets. In Zoucheng, a Municipal Cultural Relic and Tourism Bureau is responsible for the
These institutions both lack the required financial resources, technical skills, information
systems, and management skills to adequately preserve cultural heritage assets, and fail to
manage them in such a way as to provide a satisfactory cultural education experience to
15. Current weaknesses in tourism management include: (i) visitors do not receive a
signage for arrivals, departures, and orientation is inadequate; (iv) surrounding
comprehensive learning experience of the history, culture and teachings of Confucius; (ii)
the signage, interpretation and presentation of the heritage assets is inadequate; (iii)
facilities, local products and handicrafts, and facilities, e.g., shops, restaurants, cultural
environments do not encourage visitors to venture outside the boundaries of the cultural
heritage assets; (v) there is inadequate provision of tourist information on other attractions,
events, etc.
10 years has seen the farmlands of the city inhabitants swallowed up by new urban
16. Low Economic Benefits to Local Population. The average annual income of
residents inside the walled cities is about RMB 4,200, which is below the poverty line of
US$2 per day, and substantially lower than the average for Jining Municipality. About
Table 1: Access to basic services in the historic cities of Qufu and Zoucheng (Ming
construction with little compensation. As few had made long-term preparations for the
eventuality of losing their farmland, the most important source of income for these people
is now unskilled labor work.
Allowing local communities to derive economic benefits from cultural heritage assets is
17. Local communities derive little economic benefits from the large numbers of tourists.
term preservation of the assets. It is necessary to provide skills training to local residents
not only beneficial to raising local standards of living, but it is also beneficial for the long-
and engage them in work related to the tourism industry and the care and maintenance of
storm drains with stagnant smelly water. Portions of moat are badly silted, have drainage
the cultural heritage assets.
E. Insufficient Access to Basic Infrastructure Services
18. The surroundings of the cultural heritage assets are poorly maintained, and have open
existing conditions would require improvement in the maintenance of services and
and wastewater outfalls, and are littered with waste. The resulting urban environment in
the core heritage zones provides a very poor standard of living to residents. Reversal of the
awareness among residents to care for and maintain the environment.
20. National strategy of tourism industry development: along with the rapid
Dynasty walled cities)
Drinkable water sources 100%
Proper sanitation facilities 30%
Regular solid waste collection 50%
All-season roads 40%
Safe electricity connections 40%
19. The Government of China attaches great importance to the preservation of cultural
III. Institutional Environment
A. National
Relics Protection Law", and: "Regulations for the Implementation of P.R.C. Cultural
heritage. It has promulgated relevant legislation to this effect, including: "P.R.C. Cultural
Republic of China, Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics,
Relics Protection Law". The cultural sites are protected by the Constitution of the People’s
Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, Environment Protection Law of the People’s
including "Regulations of Shandong Province Cultural Relics Protection Law", "Means
Republic of China and City Planning Law of the People’s Republic of China, among other
laws. At the provincial and municipal level relevant legislation has also been promulgated,
for Cultural Relics Protection of Jining City�?, and other local regulations.
Qufu City and Zoucheng City allocate fiscal funds for the preservation of cultural heritage
improvements in standards of living in China, tourism has become a key growth industry
in China. To promote strategic economic structural adjustments, the "Industrial
Restructuring Guiding Catalog (2005)," issued by the National Development and Reform
Commission, states that projects involving the construction of tourism infrastructure and
the comprehensive development of tourism resources are actively encouraged.
guide cultural heritage preservation programs, and strongly recommends to utilise this
B. Regional
21. The Bank is glad to note that there is a Panel of Experts in Shandong Province to
in Qufu and Zoucheng, to ensure that all Bank-financing for preservation of cultural
Panel of Experts to review all proposals for cultural heritage protection and development
heritage and historic city upgrading conforms to the Chinese laws on cultural heritage,
Cultural Relics and Tourism Bureau take the responsibilities for O&M of cultural heritage
guidelines from State Administration for Cultural Heritage (SACH).
C. Local Qufu
22. The Qufu Cultural Relics Management Commission and the Zoucheng Municipal
Finance Bureaus of Qufu City and Zoucheng City. Every year the Finance Bureaus of
assets within Qufu City and Zoucheng City, respectively. Both the Commission and the
Bureau are fully fiscally self-supporting institutions. Entrance fees were collected by
25. To strengthen the management over the world heritage-Confucius Temple, Forest
assets based on the requests of Qufu Cultural Relics Management Commission and
Zoucheng Cultural Relics and Tourism Bureau.
23. The Qufu City Cultural Relics Administration Committee has just established the
World Heritage Monitoring Office to increase routine monitoring. At the same time, it has
also consolidated and improved the responsibility system for cultural relic safety.
government to exercise the administration over the cultural relics in the city. The
24. At present, the Qufu City Cultural Relics Administration Committee represents the
The management scope of the Cultural Relics and Tourism Development Company and
admission management for the three property scenes is done by the Cultural Relics and
Tourism Development Company and the Cultural Relics and Tourist Service Division.
of Shaohao, Confucius Temple on Nishan Mountain, cultural relics store, Stele Garden of
Cultural Relics and Tourist Service Division, are separate from Committee, is: Confucius
Temple, Forest and Mansion, Temple of Zhougong, Temple of Yan Hui, Shouqiu, Tomb
spots; the management of the order in the opened scenic spots; the fire safety in the scenic
Analects, Tourist Service Company and ancient building repair team. Their main duties are: Responsible for the safety of the cultural relics in the scenic spots and on display; the
spots; and the operation and management of the tertiary industry in the scenic spots.
opening of the scenic sorts and reception affairs; the sanitation and greening in the scenic
tourists visited Qufu, which by 1984 rose to about 700.000. Between 1984 and 1989
and Mansion, the government has made public the Explanations of Qufu City on the
Protection Scope of Cultural Relics Units and on the Construction Control Zones
according to the State and provincial laws and regulations on the protection of cultural
relics and in light of location conditions. The city has also issued the Measures of Qufu
Government on Further Improving the Cultural Relics Work, and is at present drafting the
City for the Management and Protection of Cultural Relics and the Views of the Qufu City
Regulations on the Protection and Management of World Heritage -- Confucius Temple,
Municipal Cultural Relic Bureau were merged into Zoucheng Municipal Cultural Relic
Confucius Forest and Confucius Mansion.
26. In July 2005, the former Zoucheng Municipal Tourism Bureau and Zoucheng
and Tourism Bureau, a new public institution of the municipal government. It is
Zoucheng Museum, the Mencius temple, mansion and cemetery, Hunagwang Tomb and
responsible for the protection of cultural heritage assets in Zoucheng and the development
of the tourism industry. The key cultural heritage assets under its jurisdiction include
growth was relatively slow, but picked up somewhat in 1990, to reach 1.69 million tourists
Iron Mountain. A detail account of the Profile of Zoucheng Municipal Cultural Relic and Tourism Bureau is provided in Annex 2.
IV. Qufu and Zoucheng tourism market analysis
A. Qufu tourism market analysis
27. In the decades following the cultural revolution, the numbers of tourists visiting
Qufu have grown rapidly, reaching a total of 8.27 million in 2009. In 1979, about 300.000
300 million people. Visits by this group are often part of a larger trip, many come by
by 1995. After that a period of rapid and sustained growth started, from 1.69 million in
1995 to 7.31 million tourists in 2009. The number of international tourists also started
28. Despite the impressive numbers, 90% of tourists only visit the Temple, mansion
picking up from 1995 onwards, reaching 320.000 by 2009.
and cemetery of Confucius, which are all located in the old city of Qufu, but the other
improving the conditions in the old city, Qufu could be transformed into a true destination
assets remain under-utilized. The average duration per visit in Qufu is only 0.6 days. By
city, including accommodation, shopping, restaurants etc. To achieve this, the old city
million), and its excellent transportation infrastructure, tourists from within Shandong
must be regenerated to its unique character, including elegant environment and
cleanliness. 29. Domestic tourism (96%):
a. Tourism from within Shandong (about 40%): Due to Shandong’s large population (90
Most come by car, particularly on weekends, and are characterized by short stays.
can visit Qufu and return home on the same day. Qufu is positioned along an
intersection of North-South and East-West highways, making it even more accessible.
About 40% of all tourists come from within Shandong, and many are return visitors.
mansion and cemetery in Qufu are much more famous, and are therefore the first and
b. Surrounding tourism markets (about 40%): Other nearby population centers include
Beijing, Tianjin, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, and Anhui, with a combined population of
tour group, and stay are on average slightly longer than tourists from within Shandong.
c. Other domestic tourism (about 15%?): Due to improvements in transportation
infrastructure and promotion efforts, a large increase has occurred in recent years in
tourists from Guangdong, Fujian, Shaanxi, and the North-East of China.
a. Korea and Japan (45%): Due to similarities in culture and close geographic proximity,
27. International tourism (4%):
most important international tourism market for Qufu, with 45% share of international
Korea an Japan have long been the largest tourism market for Shandong. It is also the
financial crisis and several virus outbreaks have had a very large impact on
tourists. Korea took over from Japan in 1997 as the most important market. The
international tourism.
c. South-East Asia (5%): Since 1995, Qufu has started to develop the South-East Asia
b. Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan (25%): Hong Kong is the most important of these
three, followed by Taiwan and Macao.
d. Europe, USA and other markets (25%): Partly due to de increased influence of
tourism market. Although numbers have increased, the recent political difficulties in
markets such as Thailand have affected tourism.
28. The tourism market in Zoucheng has the following characteristics:
Confucian thought in the USA and Europe, the numbers of tourists from these markets
has increased rapidly in the past years. B. Zoucheng tourism market analysis
Per capita GDP (RMB 35,898 26,721 31,767 39,790
a. Overshadowed by Qufu. Although Zoucheng is rich in cultural heritage assets, it
doesn’t get very large numbers of tourists. This is because the Confucius temple,
foremost destination of tourist visits to the area. On top of that, the architecture of the
Mencius temple, mansion and cemetery are very similar to those of Confucius, so most
b. Young and Middle-aged Visitors. Most visitors to Zoucheng are young or middle
visitors do not extend their visit to Zoucheng.
students and their teachers. The other main tourist attraction, Yishan, is regularly
aged. This is because the Mencius temple, mansion and cemetery are visited mainly by
tourism market, the emphasis should be on providing a more diverse range of goods
visited for company team building activities and the like. To further develop the
goods and services to satisfy the needs of a broader range of visitor age groups.
and services targeted at young and middle aged visitors, while also further developing
relatively well-cultured and educated, such as scholars or poets. However, also among
c. Highly Educated. Many of the visitors who do visit Zoucheng tend to be those who are
this group, the Confucius cultural heritage assets in Qufu are more popular.
Table 2. Economic Indicators for Shandong, Jining, Qufu and Zoucheng (year: 2008
d. Mainly Tour Groups. According to statistics, tourists from tour groups are the main
type in Zoucheng. Annex 1: Key Data unless mentioned otherwise)
Tourist growth rate (%) 15.0 19.6 14.6 16.0 13.2
Statistic Shandong Jining Qufu Zoucheng Land Area (km2) 156,700 10,686 896 1619
Population 94.17 million 8.23 million 637,300 1,141,400
GDP (million RMB) 3,380,530 212,216 20,053 44,696
per year)
Average disposable Urban 17,811 Urban 13,631 Urban 11,538 Urban 15,985
income (RMB per Rural 6,119 Rural 4,701 Rural 3,981 Rural 5,515
(million RMB) (2009 data) (2009 data) (2009 data)
Fiscal revenues 219,850 21,709 1,550 3,073
revenues (2009 data) (2009 data) (2009 data)
Fiscal budget 195,705 19,459 1,406 2,959
(million RMB)
(million RMB)
Fiscal budget 270,466 18,685 1,379 2,899
expenditures (2009 data) (2009 data) (2009 data)
Ratio of industries (% 9.6% / 57.0% / 12.1% / 55.8% / 9.2% / 44.9% / 6.8% / 63.0%
primary / secondary / 33.4% 32.1% 45.9% / 30.2%
Table 3. Tourism Industry Statistics of Qufu City (2004 – 2009)
Industrial output 6,295,853 110,088 8,343 27,121 (million RMB)
Agricultural output 289,568 25,681 1,837 3,043
(million RMB) Tourism industry as % 15.1% 3.63%
of GDP
Statistic 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Total Visitors (million) 4.00 4.60 5.50 6.30 7.31 8.27
3.84 4.43 5.28 6.05 7.02 7.95
Among which local tourists
Bureau, a new public institution of the municipal government.
Among which foreign
0.16 0.17 0.22 0.25 0.288 0.32
tourists (million)
Gate receipts (million RMB) 98 102 128 139 158 167
Revenue of tourism-related
1.14 1.30 1.70 2.01 2.70 3.24
business (billion RMB)
Growth rate of tourism-
Weight of tourism revenue
14.1 30.7 18.2 34.3 20.0
related business (%)
Table 4. Tourism Industry Statistics of Zoucheng City (2004 – 2009)
9.1 10.0 11.4 11.5 13.5 15.0
to GDP (%)
Statistic 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Total Visitors (million) 1.89 2.09 2.15 2.28 2.40 2.58
Among which local tourists
Among which foreign
Revenue of tourism-related
tourists (million)
Tourist growth rate (%) 10.2 3.0 6.0 5.3 7.7
Gate receipts (million RMB) 132 158 189 192 198 205
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.6
0.97 0.99 1.08 1.38 1.50 1.60
business (billion RMB) Growth rate of tourism-
related business (%)
2.4 9.3 27.8 8.8 6.9 Weight of tourism revenue to GDP (%)
market information.
Annex 2: Profile of Zoucheng Municipal Cultural Relic and Tourism Bureau
In July 2005, the former Zoucheng Municipal Tourism Bureau and Zoucheng Municipal
Cultural Relic Bureau were merged into Zoucheng Municipal Cultural Relic and Tourism
1. Key Responsibilities
(1) To disseminate and implement the laws, regulations and policies issued by the state,
provincial and municipal governments relating to cultural relic protection, developing
measures and plans for cultural relic protection in Zoucheng and supervising execution
(2) To be responsible for protecting, developing and making use of cultural relic in
Zoucheng, indemnifying the same from damaging, and fighting against, according to
as stealing, trafficking and vandalizing of cultural relic.
legal provisions and jointly with relevant government authorities, unlawful acts such
(3) To be responsible for exploration, unearthing, identification, protective collection and
(4) To carry through laws, regulations and policies issued by the state, provincial and
exhibition of cultural relic under jurisdiction of Zoucheng, so as to serve the material
and ethical progress of Zoucheng municipality.
medium and long term as well as annual plan for tourism development, and providing
municipal governments relating to administration of tourism industry, developing corresponding measures and methods, organizing the implementation of such
(5) To study and map out Zoucheng’s tourism development strategy, working out the
measures and methods, and supervising the implementation status. directions on statistical works of Zoucheng’s tourism industry.
(13) To develop training plan and strengthen vocational training for tourism operators;
(6) To study and map out marketing strategy for Zoucheng’s tourism industry, organizing
external publicity for the city’s overall image and key promotional activities, guiding
development of crucial tourism products and routes, and strengthening directions on
(7) To push forward actively the integrated development of international travel, domestic
travel and outbound travel.
services, attending complaints/grievances raised by tourists, and protecting in
(8) To extend supervision and inspection on tourism market of Zoucheng and quality of
(9) To extend administration, supervision and inspection on safety/security of tourism
accordance with legal provisions the lawful rights/interests of both tourists and tourism
(10) To lead the general survey on tourism resources of Zoucheng; to participate in
hotels, travel agencies, tourism restaurants, tourist attractions, tourism-related
bus/shipping companies.
for administration, development and protection of tourist attractions and vacation
planning and approval-acquirement with respect to tourism development, tourism
infrastructure construction and tourism environmental improvement; to be responsible
administrate and take use of in appropriate manner tourism development funds and
resorts of Zoucheng; to apply for approval on key tourism infrastructure projects
funded by state and provincial governments and take part in administration thereof; to
other funds levied in accordance with regulations.
travel agencies, Class A tourist attractions and tourism-related bus/shipping companies.
(11) To conduct industrial administration on all tourism-related entities of Zoucheng
and carry out initial review on establishment of star-rated hotels, star-rated restaurants,
To study and provide guidance on structural reform of tourism of Zoucheng.
4. Direct Affiliated Enterprise: Cultural Relic and Tourism Service Centre
(12) To supervise and extend coordination to travel prices along with relevant
governmental authorities.
to apply occupational qualification system and qualification rating system among
tourism operators.
(15) To implement other tasks assigned by the municipal government.
(14) To guide ethical progress in Zoucheng’s tourism industry.
(2) Tourism administration section
2. Organizational Structure
(1) Party affairs and administrative office
(5) Safety and security section
(3) Cultural relic administration office
(4) Marketing section
(8) Mencius research society
(6) Service quality supervision and administration office
(7) Law enforcement team for cultural relic and tourism
Key responsibilities: Collection, identification, recovery, filing and safekeeping of its
3. Affiliated Public Institutions
(1) Zoucheng Museum
cultural relic collections; cultural relic exhibition, external business exchange,
(2) Mencius Temple and Mencius Mansion Administration Department
disseminating historic and scientific knowledge, and building the museum into a
patriotism and socialism education base.
Key responsibilities: routine administration and safety/security of Mencius Temple and
(4) Mencius Cemetery Administration Office
Mencius Mansion, tourism product development, dissemination and marketing.
(3) Huangwang Tomb Administration Office
Key responsibilities: routine administration and safety/security of the Huangwang Tomb.
(6) Zoucheng Municipal Travel Agency
Key responsibilities: routine administration and safety/security of Mencius Cemetery.
(5) Tieshan (Iron Mountain) Cultural Relic Administration Office
Key responsibilities: administration and safety/security of cultural relic within Tieshan and
Gangshan areas.
history. In its 2500 years of history the Temple has been damaged or destroyed by man or
Key responsibilities: reception of group tourists and other guests.
Key responsibilities: development and sales of tourism souvenirs and products.
Annex 3: UNESCO World Heritage Site Advisory Body Evaluation of the Temple of
Confucius, the Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu
Confucius, the Cemetery of Confucius was where he and his descendants were buried, and
1. The Temple of Confucius was built to commemorate and offer sacrifices to
descendants on the orders of the Imperial family. All relate to the great thinker,
the Kong Family Mansion was the aristocratic mansion built by his male direct
2. Confucianism was considered to be the paramount philosophy of feudal society in
philosopher, and educator, the founder of Confucianism and one of the greatest figures in
world history.
on the Enlightenment of 18th century Europe. Nowadays many developed countries are
Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and other countries, as well as China. It had a positive influence
studying Confucianism to discover ways of combating the abuses of modern civilization.
expanded into a complex as large as the Imperial Palace in Beijing. Similarly, the family
3. More than two thousand Confucian temples have been built in the Asian world, and
the temple at Qufu is the largest of these. The original three-room dwelling of the sage was
Confucianism by the feudal dynasties. The Confucian style had a profound influence on
Cemetery was extended to over 2 million m2, protected by the State, and the Kong Family
Mansion grew from a simple dwelling house to a noble mansion with more than 560
nature many times, only to be rebuilt each time on a larger and more magnificent scale.
rooms. These developments illustrate the great veneration accorded to Confucius and eastern architecture, and it occupies an important position in the evolution of Chinese
architecture. Above all, it remains purely oriental and traditional, without external 4. The Temple, Cemetery, and Mansion are famous for their uniqueness and long
enlightenment to bear on global development and the social advancement of mankind.
The buildings were designed and built with meticulous care according to the ideas of
Confucianism. They are masterpieces that embody the highest achievements of Chinese
employed to apply their great skills in the adornment of the Temple. Similarly, in the most
architecture and art. In the Ming Period many outstanding artists and craftsmen were
prosperous period of the Qing Dynasty Imperial craftsmen were assigned to build the
5. The layout of the Temple is designed to focus upon the main building. The complex
Dacheng Hall and Gate and the Qin Hall, which are universally considered to represent the
pinnacle of Qing art and architecture.
politics, and ethics, as well as the material world - combined with honesty, sincerity, and
is intimately linked with its surronnding wooded landscape, whilst within there is an elaborate hierarchy in the disposition of the individual components. Above all, harmony
prevails, illustrating the Confucian ideal of harmony in every aspect of life - philosophy,
moderation. 6. Although Confucius died over 2400 years ago, his philosophy still exerts a profound
into the 21st century, they must go back 2500 years to draw upon the wisdom of
influence, not only in China but also in all parts of the world. The essence of his creed is
the system of benevolence, to meet the needs of human existence and evolution. The
Confucius �?.
declaration of the 1988 Nobel Prize ceremony asserted that “If mankind wishes to survive
Map 3. Project area, highlighting Qufu and Zoucheng. The distance between the two cities
7. The Temple of Confucius, the Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion are not only outstanding representatives of oriental architectural skills, but they also have a
enduring and rich culturaI heritage of Confucianism will assuredly bring valuable
deep historical content and are an important part of the cultural heritage of mankind. The 8. The protection of Confucius Temple, Confucius Forest and Confucius Mansion could
be traced back to more than 2,000 years ago. Since Han Dynasty (2nd Century B.C.), they
have been under the state protection. Confucius Temple underwent more than 90 times
expansion and repairs. In 1513 (8th year of Zhengde in Ming Dynasty), the seat of the
Confucius, Forest more than 30 times and Confucius Mansion more than 20 times of
9. Since 1949, especially since 1978, the State and local governments have not only
county was moved for the purpose of guarding the Confucius Temple, thus the position of
the temple in the central part of the city was highlighted.
maintenance of ancient buildings. They have also paid great attention to the protection of
worked to protect the cultural relics, but also put in huge sum of investment into the
the general background of the cultural relics. In 1982, the State Council of the People’s
construction control zones for Confucius Temple, Confucius Forest and Confucius
Republic of China designated Qufu as one of the first batch of national-level famous
historical and cultural cities. In 1987, the city delimited the protection scope and
10. In May 2001, the city government in 1995 passed the Views of the Qufu City
Mansion. In August 1994, the government made known and reiterated the protection scopes and construction zones for the cultural relic sites. The Measures of Qufu City for
the Protection and Management of Cultural Relics issued in May 1995 also had the similar People’s Government on Further Improving the Cultural Relics Work. Therefore, the legal
Map 2. Shandong Province, Jining Municipality highlighted in dark blue below:
protection over the property has been active and effective. There does not exist the
pressure from dismantling or rebuilding, or the possibility that may affect the authenticity
or integrity due to social development. Annex 4: Maps of the Project Area
Map 4. Detailed map of Ming Dynasty walled city of Qufu, covering an area of 1.67 km2:
Map 1. China, Shandong Province highlighted in red is about 20 km.

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