China : Shandong Culture Heritage Sector Review
69721CONTENTSPageI. Project Background .......................................................................................................... 3B. Historical Significance of Confucius and Mencius .......................................................... 3A. Qufu and Zoucheng .......................................................................................................... 3II. Key Development Issues................................................................................................... 4C. Urban Design Considerations ........................................................................................... 6A. Physical Decay of Cultural Heritage Assets ..................................................................... 4B. Environmental Conditions in Historic Cities. ................................................................... 6D. Weak Tourism Management............................................................................................. 7A. National ............................................................................................................................ 8E. Insufficient Access to Basic Infrastructure Services ......................................................... 8III. Institutional Environment ................................................................................................ 8B. Regional ............................................................................................................................ 9B. Zoucheng tourism market analysis ................................................................................. 11C. Local ................................................................................................................................. 9IV. Qufu and Zoucheng tourism market analysis ................................................................ 10Annex 1: Key Data .............................................................................................................. 12A. Qufu tourism market analysis ......................................................................................... 10poor area in the South-West of Shandong Province. The area was home to some ofAnnex 2: Profile of Zoucheng Municipal Cultural Relic and Tourism Bureau .................. 14Annex 3: UNESCO World Heritage Site Advisory Body Evaluation of the Temple ofAnnex 4: Maps of the Project Area ..................................................................................... 19Confucius, the Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu ... 17I. Project Background A. Qufu and Zouchengaffluent, with a population of 1.1 million, a surface area of 1,613 km2, and GDP per capita1. Qufu and Zoucheng are two neighboring county-level cities in Jining Municipality, aChina’s earliest civilizations, and rich in cultural heritage assets. Cultural heritage assets incomplex, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as well as over 100 national-level culturalthe project area include the Confucius Temple, Kong family mansion, and burial groundsheritage assets.Province. Zoucheng is located to the South of Qufu, and is both larger and somewhat more2. Qufu has a population of 640,000, covers an area of 896 km2, and is poor, with GDPper capita of Y31,767 (US$4,637), significantly lower than the average of Shandong4. Cultural heritage assets in Qufu and Zoucheng, include the Confucius Temple, Kongof Y39,790 (US$5,809). Zoucheng has a developed coal mining and power sector.3. The number of tourists visiting the two historic cities of Qufu and Zoucheng has beensteadily growing in recent years, reaching 9.7 million visitors in 2008, generating revenuesof RMB 4.2 billion. In Qufu, tourism accounted for 15.1% of GDP and in Zoucheng formainly on day trips by car, 40% come from other surrounding cities and provinces, usually3.6%. Of the tourists, approximately 40% of come from within Shandong Province,by tour group, 16% come from other Chinese cities, and about 4% come from foreigncities; and many other heritage assets relating to Confucianism and the roots of Chinesecountries.Family Mansion, and Burial Grounds Complex. These cultural heritage assets have beenrecognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, due to their “outstanding universalsignificance,�? for “representing a masterpiece of human creative genius,�? and for being“an architectural ensemble which illustrates a significant stage in human history.�? Inassets, including the ruins of the temple, mansion, and cemetery of Mencius; the birthplaceaddition to these major sites, the two cities have over 100 national-level cultural heritageof Confucius, with ancient temples and libraries; the two Ming Dynasty historic walledB. Historical Significance of Confucius and Menciuscivilization.5. Although tourist arrivals have been rapidly growing in recent years, visitors have littleinformation, incentive or opportunity to spend more time and money. Out of 9.7 millionaverage spending RMB 392 per stay. In Zoucheng, the average stay was only 0.3 days,tourists that visited the two cities in 2008, their average stay was only 0.6 days andspending RMB 200 per stay. The average annual per capita disposable income in Qufutourists, the local population derives limited benefits from tourism.was Y4,479 (US$654) in 2008, marginally below the poverty line of $2 per day, and lowerthan the average in Shandong Province, indicating that despite the large numbers ofthoughts, stressing benevolent government, thus putting Confucianism at the core of1. Confucius (551-479 BC), born earlier than Socrates, and contemporary toSakyamuni (Buddha), was one of the three philosophers considered as the world’s greatestancient thinkers that profoundly influenced human history. Confucius was a renownedbelief that he created was adopted as the pre-eminent ideology in feudal Chinese societyphilosopher, politician, and educator in the Spring and Autumn Period. The system ofsocietal bonds and ethics.for more than two thousand years: he was the “Sacred First Teacher�? and Sacred ModelTeacher for Ten Thousand Years�?. Confucius’ theories emphasized the importance of3. The lives and activities of Confucius and Mencius for the largest part took place in2. Mencius was born 180 years after Confucius. He inherited and passed on Confucius’Chinese culture. Confucius’ and Mencius’ strain of Confucianism became mainstreamChinese culture by the time of the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), particularly as it wastransformed and re-explained by the rulers as national philosophy. As such, Confucianismshaped the culture of China and beyond, especially including also Japan and Korea.ancient Chinese civilization, but at the same time has been held to be an obstruction inTherefore Confucianism is essential to understanding of Chinese traditional, and evencontemporary, culture. The school of thought stands as the most important factor inbe erected in 1244 and in 1331 Kong Sihui began building the wall and gate of themodern times, as Confucian thought has in the past been distorted and abused by those inpower.cultural and administrative center up to the Qin Dynasty. The space between Qufu andQufu and Zoucheng. Qufu was the capital to the Lu state 3000 years ago, being China’sZoucheng carries Confucius’and Mencius’ culture through time, preserving profound andabundant heritage.tomb in the form of an axe, with a brick platform for sacrifices. When Emperor Wu Di of4. Confucius was buried on the bank of the Si River, 1 km north of Qufu, beneath aschools of thought and respect only Confucianism�?, the Tomb became an important placethe Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 24) accepted proposals to “eliminate the hundredof veneration and pilgrimage, and was progressively enlarged and ornamented in theCemetery, and this work continued with the addition of gate towers, arches, pavilions, andfollowing centuries. By the 2nd century AD more than fifty tombs of Confucius’sdescendants had accumulated around the main tomb. Stelae commemorating him began tostabilization and repair. The ancient paintings on the structures have badly weathered, andthe access road from the north gate of the city of Qufu (1594). By the late 18th century theCemetery was extended to cover an area of 3.6 km’, enclosed by a perimeter wall of over6. The cultural heritage assets inside the walled cities of Qufu and Zoucheng are not7 km.II. Key Development IssuesA. Physical Decay of Cultural Heritage Assetsmansions of Confucius and Mencius have not been significantly repaired or maintainedadequately maintained, protected, or preserved. About two thirds of the temples and7. From a technical point of view, about a third of the timber sections show signs ofsince the Cultural Revolution in the 60s and the country’s liberation in the 40s; and abouta third have had no repair since the Ming Dynasty (over 300 years ago).Cultural heritage assets should thrive of life, events, and learning activities. Culturalstructural weakness (i.e., sagging) and serious weathering, and are in urgent need ofamateurish attempts at repainting are visible. Over 1,000 steles have serious weatherdamage. Few of the unique traditional buildings inside the walled cities remain, and someare under risk of collapse. Most other traditional buildings have been rebuilt, without anyplanning controls, as unattractive crowded houses devoid of the traditional architectural8. Only a small fraction of the entrance fees is allocated to maintenance and repair of thefeatures necessary in a historic city.are severely under-funded, and not managed with the necessary expertise.cultural heritage assets (about 20% of the required budget). Ongoing repair programshighlight issues and recommendations relating to cultural heritage preservation and9. Cultural Heritage Preservation and Presentation. The seven points belowpresentation.time visiting them, and they are not linked to the daily life of the local citizens.(i) Overall, the cultural heritage assets are underutilized, the tourists spend only littlecompromise their cultural heritage assets and therefore should be avoided.heritage assets can be preserved effectively only if they are kept in use, otherwiseany efforts to preserve them cannot be justified economically.millions of tourists that visit them spend only little time enjoying their magnificent(ii) Presentation of cultural heritage assets should be redesigned in its entirety, as thecultural heritage assets, their visits are poorly managed and presentation needsbeauty. The local citizens and the tourists are not fully informed of the value of thestrengthening.activities selling local products should be located nearby the cultural heritage assets,(iii) Much more attention should be paid to ensure a comprehensive experience to thevisitors (arriving, learning, visiting, refreshing, and leaving), and commercial(iv) Uncontrolled or poorly controlled urban development in the historic cities couldleveraging these assets as a branding opportunity for the entire territory in whichthey are located.(vi) Fire dangers exist at the Mencius tomb and cemetery, as well as the Confucius(v) Urban development in historic cities inspired to mere reconstructions of old-stylebuildings should be avoided carefully, as such approach would create a pastiche,with negative consequence on the attractiveness of the historic cities and on thevalue of the existing historic buildings. Indeed, proper urban upgrading and blockof architecture that looks at the tradition without replicating it. It “sympathizes�? withreconstruction is encouraged, but new buildings should sympathize with the ancientones without imitating them. The Confucius Academy is a good example of a pieceand colors. It has its own aesthetic dignity, and it is not a copy or a sterile replica ofthe historic urban environment, but it has been built with modern techniques, forms,ancient styles. The same approach that inspired the design of this good buildingof cultural heritage assets, renewal of traditional housing and infrastructure, basedshould be applied to any other redevelopment in the historic cities. cemetery.B. Environmental Conditions in Historic Cities.10. The three points below highlight issues relating to Environmental Conditions inHistoric Cities.(i) The environment around the cultural heritage assets is deteriorating. A decayingcultural heritage asset in the midst of a poor and deteriorating environment willMaintenance of local, national, and World Heritage sites is not taking placecontinue to lose its appeal to visitors and potential to generate revenues.properly, probably because annual and regular budgets are not available.the historic city. Poorly controlled development continues. The city moats haveSurrounding buildings do not meet acceptable standards and do not sympathize withwastewater outfalls, solid waste collection is below standards, and plastic bags litterattractions of the historic cities disappear. Therefore, preservation and maintenancethe moats and surrounding areas. Available development control regulations do notappear to be enforced. Decisive action is required to reverse the trend before theshould sympathize, but not imitate historic ones. Land values in the historic cities areon a long-term plan, are urgent, along with an effective development controlregulations that includes enforcement.associated with the major urban heritage assets and buffer zones should be reduced.(ii) The quality of the urban environment should be enhanced, and the povertycultural heritage assets will detract from the heritage values if there setting is notThe cities are at a critical stage in their development and the areas around theChina’s reputation for presenting heritage to the world, and the intangiblemaintained. Tourists will be deterred from appreciating China’s greatest heritage,significance of its philosophers could be affected.11. Urban planning in historic cities needs to be modernized, while retaining(iii) Insufficient city servicing and cleanliness can make the cities unattractive,especially the rivers and water systems. C. Urban Design Considerationsdevelopment controls and their enforcement is resulting in landscapes which arecompatibility with the traditional character of the historic cities, and new buildingslow relative to their potential opportunity cost. With the allocation of more land forsustainable tourism functions under the historic cities plans, optimized use of theremaining residential land becomes a necessity. Land needs to be used morefor the blocks selected for the project, a development plan that optimizes land use forproductively in any redevelopment planning. Prior to developing upgrading proposalsplanning and investigate the best density to maintain and enhance land values in thethe entire historic cities needs to be designed. This plan would enable infrastructurehistoric cities addressed by the project.architectural controls, and have a very low density. Development control is lacking12. Lack of Development Control in Historic Cities. New construction within thewalled historic cities takes place without conforming to any building standards orHeritage (SACH). The non-adherence to SACH guidelines and the lack ofeven within the 200 m buffer zones around the heritage assets, for which there arerequirements specified under the regulations of the State Administration of Culturalprotection of cultural heritage assets, as well as the development of the tourism industry.unattractive to domestic and international visitors and threatens to compromise thevalue of the cultural heritage and their potential to generate revenues.13. Engineering Design Considerations. Key design issues that need to be addressedduring project preparation include:(i) Designing water supply and wastewater networks for the historic cities, usingoptimization techniques to determine the size of networks that will be installed inthe selected project sites;(iii) Studying the role of septic tanks with the availability of sewer systems;(ii) Arranging water supply and sewer connections to ensure early connections andutilization of services;(iv) Verifying the adequacy of off-site infrastructure facilities, e.g., adequate water14. The cultural heritage assets further suffer from poor presentation and interpretation,supply, and wastewater treatment capacity; and(v) Arranging accurate infrastructure mapping records.D. Weak Tourism Managementand lack of adequate tourist facilities. In Qufu, the Cultural Relics Management70% of residents in the historic cities are former farmers, who lack specific skills. The lastCommission is responsible for the protection, repair and management of cultural heritageassets. In Zoucheng, a Municipal Cultural Relic and Tourism Bureau is responsible for theThese institutions both lack the required financial resources, technical skills, informationsystems, and management skills to adequately preserve cultural heritage assets, and fail totourists.manage them in such a way as to provide a satisfactory cultural education experience to15. Current weaknesses in tourism management include: (i) visitors do not receive asignage for arrivals, departures, and orientation is inadequate; (iv) surroundingcomprehensive learning experience of the history, culture and teachings of Confucius; (ii)the signage, interpretation and presentation of the heritage assets is inadequate; (iii)facilities, local products and handicrafts, and facilities, e.g., shops, restaurants, culturalenvironments do not encourage visitors to venture outside the boundaries of the culturalheritage assets; (v) there is inadequate provision of tourist information on other attractions,events, etc.10 years has seen the farmlands of the city inhabitants swallowed up by new urban16. Low Economic Benefits to Local Population. The average annual income ofresidents inside the walled cities is about RMB 4,200, which is below the poverty line ofUS$2 per day, and substantially lower than the average for Jining Municipality. AboutTable 1: Access to basic services in the historic cities of Qufu and Zoucheng (Mingconstruction with little compensation. As few had made long-term preparations for theeventuality of losing their farmland, the most important source of income for these peopleis now unskilled labor work.Allowing local communities to derive economic benefits from cultural heritage assets is17. Local communities derive little economic benefits from the large numbers of tourists.term preservation of the assets. It is necessary to provide skills training to local residentsnot only beneficial to raising local standards of living, but it is also beneficial for the long-and engage them in work related to the tourism industry and the care and maintenance ofstorm drains with stagnant smelly water. Portions of moat are badly silted, have drainagethe cultural heritage assets.E. Insufficient Access to Basic Infrastructure Services18. The surroundings of the cultural heritage assets are poorly maintained, and have openexisting conditions would require improvement in the maintenance of services andand wastewater outfalls, and are littered with waste. The resulting urban environment inthe core heritage zones provides a very poor standard of living to residents. Reversal of theawareness among residents to care for and maintain the environment.20. National strategy of tourism industry development: along with the rapidDynasty walled cities)Drinkable water sources 100%Proper sanitation facilities 30%Regular solid waste collection 50%All-season roads 40%Safe electricity connections 40%19. The Government of China attaches great importance to the preservation of culturalIII. Institutional EnvironmentA. NationalRelics Protection Law", and: "Regulations for the Implementation of P.R.C. Culturalheritage. It has promulgated relevant legislation to this effect, including: "P.R.C. CulturalRepublic of China, Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics,Relics Protection Law". The cultural sites are protected by the Constitution of the People’sCriminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, Environment Protection Law of the People’sincluding "Regulations of Shandong Province Cultural Relics Protection Law", "MeansRepublic of China and City Planning Law of the People’s Republic of China, among otherlaws. At the provincial and municipal level relevant legislation has also been promulgated,for Cultural Relics Protection of Jining City�?, and other local regulations.Qufu City and Zoucheng City allocate fiscal funds for the preservation of cultural heritageimprovements in standards of living in China, tourism has become a key growth industryin China. To promote strategic economic structural adjustments, the "IndustrialRestructuring Guiding Catalog (2005)," issued by the National Development and ReformCommission, states that projects involving the construction of tourism infrastructure andthe comprehensive development of tourism resources are actively encouraged.guide cultural heritage preservation programs, and strongly recommends to utilise thisB. Regional21. The Bank is glad to note that there is a Panel of Experts in Shandong Province toin Qufu and Zoucheng, to ensure that all Bank-financing for preservation of culturalPanel of Experts to review all proposals for cultural heritage protection and developmentheritage and historic city upgrading conforms to the Chinese laws on cultural heritage,Cultural Relics and Tourism Bureau take the responsibilities for O&M of cultural heritageguidelines from State Administration for Cultural Heritage (SACH).C. Local Qufu22. The Qufu Cultural Relics Management Commission and the Zoucheng MunicipalFinance Bureaus of Qufu City and Zoucheng City. Every year the Finance Bureaus ofassets within Qufu City and Zoucheng City, respectively. Both the Commission and theBureau are fully fiscally self-supporting institutions. Entrance fees were collected by25. To strengthen the management over the world heritage-Confucius Temple, Forestassets based on the requests of Qufu Cultural Relics Management Commission andZoucheng Cultural Relics and Tourism Bureau.23. The Qufu City Cultural Relics Administration Committee has just established theWorld Heritage Monitoring Office to increase routine monitoring. At the same time, it hasalso consolidated and improved the responsibility system for cultural relic safety.government to exercise the administration over the cultural relics in the city. The24. At present, the Qufu City Cultural Relics Administration Committee represents theThe management scope of the Cultural Relics and Tourism Development Company andadmission management for the three property scenes is done by the Cultural Relics andTourism Development Company and the Cultural Relics and Tourist Service Division.of Shaohao, Confucius Temple on Nishan Mountain, cultural relics store, Stele Garden ofCultural Relics and Tourist Service Division, are separate from Committee, is: ConfuciusTemple, Forest and Mansion, Temple of Zhougong, Temple of Yan Hui, Shouqiu, Tombspots; the management of the order in the opened scenic spots; the fire safety in the scenicAnalects, Tourist Service Company and ancient building repair team. Their main duties are: Responsible for the safety of the cultural relics in the scenic spots and on display; thespots; and the operation and management of the tertiary industry in the scenic spots.opening of the scenic sorts and reception affairs; the sanitation and greening in the scenictourists visited Qufu, which by 1984 rose to about 700.000. Between 1984 and 1989and Mansion, the government has made public the Explanations of Qufu City on theProtection Scope of Cultural Relics Units and on the Construction Control Zonesaccording to the State and provincial laws and regulations on the protection of culturalrelics and in light of location conditions. The city has also issued the Measures of QufuGovernment on Further Improving the Cultural Relics Work, and is at present drafting theCity for the Management and Protection of Cultural Relics and the Views of the Qufu CityRegulations on the Protection and Management of World Heritage -- Confucius Temple,Municipal Cultural Relic Bureau were merged into Zoucheng Municipal Cultural RelicConfucius Forest and Confucius Mansion.Zoucheng26. In July 2005, the former Zoucheng Municipal Tourism Bureau and Zouchengand Tourism Bureau, a new public institution of the municipal government. It isZoucheng Museum, the Mencius temple, mansion and cemetery, Hunagwang Tomb andresponsible for the protection of cultural heritage assets in Zoucheng and the developmentof the tourism industry. The key cultural heritage assets under its jurisdiction includegrowth was relatively slow, but picked up somewhat in 1990, to reach 1.69 million touristsIron Mountain. A detail account of the Profile of Zoucheng Municipal Cultural Relic and Tourism Bureau is provided in Annex 2.IV. Qufu and Zoucheng tourism market analysisA. Qufu tourism market analysis27. In the decades following the cultural revolution, the numbers of tourists visitingQufu have grown rapidly, reaching a total of 8.27 million in 2009. In 1979, about 300.000300 million people. Visits by this group are often part of a larger trip, many come byby 1995. After that a period of rapid and sustained growth started, from 1.69 million in1995 to 7.31 million tourists in 2009. The number of international tourists also started28. Despite the impressive numbers, 90% of tourists only visit the Temple, mansionpicking up from 1995 onwards, reaching 320.000 by 2009.and cemetery of Confucius, which are all located in the old city of Qufu, but the otherimproving the conditions in the old city, Qufu could be transformed into a true destinationassets remain under-utilized. The average duration per visit in Qufu is only 0.6 days. Bycity, including accommodation, shopping, restaurants etc. To achieve this, the old citymillion), and its excellent transportation infrastructure, tourists from within Shandongmust be regenerated to its unique character, including elegant environment andcleanliness. 29. Domestic tourism (96%):a. Tourism from within Shandong (about 40%): Due to Shandong’s large population (90Most come by car, particularly on weekends, and are characterized by short stays.can visit Qufu and return home on the same day. Qufu is positioned along anintersection of North-South and East-West highways, making it even more accessible.About 40% of all tourists come from within Shandong, and many are return visitors.mansion and cemetery in Qufu are much more famous, and are therefore the first andb. Surrounding tourism markets (about 40%): Other nearby population centers includeBeijing, Tianjin, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, and Anhui, with a combined population oftour group, and stay are on average slightly longer than tourists from within Shandong.c. Other domestic tourism (about 15%?): Due to improvements in transportationinfrastructure and promotion efforts, a large increase has occurred in recent years intourists from Guangdong, Fujian, Shaanxi, and the North-East of China.a. Korea and Japan (45%): Due to similarities in culture and close geographic proximity,27. International tourism (4%):most important international tourism market for Qufu, with 45% share of internationalKorea an Japan have long been the largest tourism market for Shandong. It is also thefinancial crisis and several virus outbreaks have had a very large impact ontourists. Korea took over from Japan in 1997 as the most important market. Theinternational tourism.c. South-East Asia (5%): Since 1995, Qufu has started to develop the South-East Asiab. Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan (25%): Hong Kong is the most important of thesethree, followed by Taiwan and Macao.d. Europe, USA and other markets (25%): Partly due to de increased influence oftourism market. Although numbers have increased, the recent political difficulties inmarkets such as Thailand have affected tourism.28. The tourism market in Zoucheng has the following characteristics:Confucian thought in the USA and Europe, the numbers of tourists from these marketshas increased rapidly in the past years. B. Zoucheng tourism market analysisPer capita GDP (RMB 35,898 26,721 31,767 39,790a. Overshadowed by Qufu. Although Zoucheng is rich in cultural heritage assets, itdoesn’t get very large numbers of tourists. This is because the Confucius temple,foremost destination of tourist visits to the area. On top of that, the architecture of theMencius temple, mansion and cemetery are very similar to those of Confucius, so mostb. Young and Middle-aged Visitors. Most visitors to Zoucheng are young or middlevisitors do not extend their visit to Zoucheng.students and their teachers. The other main tourist attraction, Yishan, is regularlyaged. This is because the Mencius temple, mansion and cemetery are visited mainly bytourism market, the emphasis should be on providing a more diverse range of goodsvisited for company team building activities and the like. To further develop thegoods and services to satisfy the needs of a broader range of visitor age groups.and services targeted at young and middle aged visitors, while also further developingrelatively well-cultured and educated, such as scholars or poets. However, also amongc. Highly Educated. Many of the visitors who do visit Zoucheng tend to be those who arethis group, the Confucius cultural heritage assets in Qufu are more popular.Table 2. Economic Indicators for Shandong, Jining, Qufu and Zoucheng (year: 2008d. Mainly Tour Groups. According to statistics, tourists from tour groups are the maintype in Zoucheng. Annex 1: Key Data unless mentioned otherwise)Tourist growth rate (%) 15.0 19.6 14.6 16.0 13.2Statistic Shandong Jining Qufu Zoucheng Land Area (km2) 156,700 10,686 896 1619Population 94.17 million 8.23 million 637,300 1,141,400GDP (million RMB) 3,380,530 212,216 20,053 44,696per year)Average disposable Urban 17,811 Urban 13,631 Urban 11,538 Urban 15,985income (RMB per Rural 6,119 Rural 4,701 Rural 3,981 Rural 5,515(million RMB) (2009 data) (2009 data) (2009 data)year)Fiscal revenues 219,850 21,709 1,550 3,073revenues (2009 data) (2009 data) (2009 data)Fiscal budget 195,705 19,459 1,406 2,959(million RMB)(million RMB)Fiscal budget 270,466 18,685 1,379 2,899expenditures (2009 data) (2009 data) (2009 data)tertiary)Ratio of industries (% 9.6% / 57.0% / 12.1% / 55.8% / 9.2% / 44.9% / 6.8% / 63.0%primary / secondary / 33.4% 32.1% 45.9% / 30.2%Table 3. Tourism Industry Statistics of Qufu City (2004 – 2009)Industrial output 6,295,853 110,088 8,343 27,121 (million RMB)Agricultural output 289,568 25,681 1,837 3,043(million RMB) Tourism industry as % 15.1% 3.63%(million)of GDPStatistic 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009Total Visitors (million) 4.00 4.60 5.50 6.30 7.31 8.273.84 4.43 5.28 6.05 7.02 7.95Among which local touristsBureau, a new public institution of the municipal government.Among which foreign0.16 0.17 0.22 0.25 0.288 0.32tourists (million)Gate receipts (million RMB) 98 102 128 139 158 167Revenue of tourism-related1.14 1.30 1.70 2.01 2.70 3.24business (billion RMB)Growth rate of tourism-Weight of tourism revenue14.1 30.7 18.2 34.3 20.0related business (%)Table 4. Tourism Industry Statistics of Zoucheng City (2004 – 2009)9.1 10.0 11.4 11.5 13.5 15.0to GDP (%)Statistic 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009(million)Total Visitors (million) 1.89 2.09 2.15 2.28 2.40 2.58Among which local touristsAmong which foreign2.37Revenue of tourism-related0.10tourists (million)Tourist growth rate (%) 10.2 3.0 6.0 5.3 7.7Gate receipts (million RMB) 132 158 189 192 198 2053.0 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.60.97 0.99 1.08 1.38 1.50 1.60business (billion RMB) Growth rate of tourism-related business (%)2.4 9.3 27.8 8.8 6.9 Weight of tourism revenue to GDP (%)market information.Annex 2: Profile of Zoucheng Municipal Cultural Relic and Tourism BureauIn July 2005, the former Zoucheng Municipal Tourism Bureau and Zoucheng MunicipalCultural Relic Bureau were merged into Zoucheng Municipal Cultural Relic and Tourism1. Key Responsibilities(1) To disseminate and implement the laws, regulations and policies issued by the state,provincial and municipal governments relating to cultural relic protection, developingmeasures and plans for cultural relic protection in Zoucheng and supervising execution(2) To be responsible for protecting, developing and making use of cultural relic inthereof.Zoucheng, indemnifying the same from damaging, and fighting against, according toas stealing, trafficking and vandalizing of cultural relic.legal provisions and jointly with relevant government authorities, unlawful acts such(3) To be responsible for exploration, unearthing, identification, protective collection and(4) To carry through laws, regulations and policies issued by the state, provincial andexhibition of cultural relic under jurisdiction of Zoucheng, so as to serve the materialand ethical progress of Zoucheng municipality.medium and long term as well as annual plan for tourism development, and providingmunicipal governments relating to administration of tourism industry, developing corresponding measures and methods, organizing the implementation of such(5) To study and map out Zoucheng’s tourism development strategy, working out themeasures and methods, and supervising the implementation status. directions on statistical works of Zoucheng’s tourism industry.(13) To develop training plan and strengthen vocational training for tourism operators;(6) To study and map out marketing strategy for Zoucheng’s tourism industry, organizingexternal publicity for the city’s overall image and key promotional activities, guidingdevelopment of crucial tourism products and routes, and strengthening directions on(7) To push forward actively the integrated development of international travel, domestictravel and outbound travel.services, attending complaints/grievances raised by tourists, and protecting in(8) To extend supervision and inspection on tourism market of Zoucheng and quality of(9) To extend administration, supervision and inspection on safety/security of tourismaccordance with legal provisions the lawful rights/interests of both tourists and tourismoperators.(10) To lead the general survey on tourism resources of Zoucheng; to participate inhotels, travel agencies, tourism restaurants, tourist attractions, tourism-relatedbus/shipping companies.for administration, development and protection of tourist attractions and vacationplanning and approval-acquirement with respect to tourism development, tourisminfrastructure construction and tourism environmental improvement; to be responsibleadministrate and take use of in appropriate manner tourism development funds andresorts of Zoucheng; to apply for approval on key tourism infrastructure projectsfunded by state and provincial governments and take part in administration thereof; toother funds levied in accordance with regulations.travel agencies, Class A tourist attractions and tourism-related bus/shipping companies.(11) To conduct industrial administration on all tourism-related entities of Zouchengand carry out initial review on establishment of star-rated hotels, star-rated restaurants,To study and provide guidance on structural reform of tourism of Zoucheng.4. Direct Affiliated Enterprise: Cultural Relic and Tourism Service Centre(12) To supervise and extend coordination to travel prices along with relevantgovernmental authorities.to apply occupational qualification system and qualification rating system amongtourism operators.(15) To implement other tasks assigned by the municipal government.(14) To guide ethical progress in Zoucheng’s tourism industry.(2) Tourism administration section2. Organizational Structure(1) Party affairs and administrative office(5) Safety and security section(3) Cultural relic administration office(4) Marketing section(8) Mencius research society(6) Service quality supervision and administration office(7) Law enforcement team for cultural relic and tourismKey responsibilities: Collection, identification, recovery, filing and safekeeping of its3. Affiliated Public Institutions(1) Zoucheng Museumcultural relic collections; cultural relic exhibition, external business exchange,(2) Mencius Temple and Mencius Mansion Administration Departmentdisseminating historic and scientific knowledge, and building the museum into apatriotism and socialism education base.Key responsibilities: routine administration and safety/security of Mencius Temple and(4) Mencius Cemetery Administration OfficeMencius Mansion, tourism product development, dissemination and marketing.(3) Huangwang Tomb Administration OfficeKey responsibilities: routine administration and safety/security of the Huangwang Tomb.(6) Zoucheng Municipal Travel AgencyKey responsibilities: routine administration and safety/security of Mencius Cemetery.(5) Tieshan (Iron Mountain) Cultural Relic Administration OfficeKey responsibilities: administration and safety/security of cultural relic within Tieshan andGangshan areas.history. In its 2500 years of history the Temple has been damaged or destroyed by man orKey responsibilities: reception of group tourists and other guests.Key responsibilities: development and sales of tourism souvenirs and products.Annex 3: UNESCO World Heritage Site Advisory Body Evaluation of the Temple ofConfucius, the Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion in QufuConfucius, the Cemetery of Confucius was where he and his descendants were buried, and1. The Temple of Confucius was built to commemorate and offer sacrifices todescendants on the orders of the Imperial family. All relate to the great thinker,the Kong Family Mansion was the aristocratic mansion built by his male direct2. Confucianism was considered to be the paramount philosophy of feudal society inphilosopher, and educator, the founder of Confucianism and one of the greatest figures inworld history.on the Enlightenment of 18th century Europe. Nowadays many developed countries areKorea, Japan, Vietnam, and other countries, as well as China. It had a positive influencestudying Confucianism to discover ways of combating the abuses of modern civilization.expanded into a complex as large as the Imperial Palace in Beijing. Similarly, the family3. More than two thousand Confucian temples have been built in the Asian world, andthe temple at Qufu is the largest of these. The original three-room dwelling of the sage wasConfucianism by the feudal dynasties. The Confucian style had a profound influence onCemetery was extended to over 2 million m2, protected by the State, and the Kong FamilyMansion grew from a simple dwelling house to a noble mansion with more than 560nature many times, only to be rebuilt each time on a larger and more magnificent scale.rooms. These developments illustrate the great veneration accorded to Confucius and eastern architecture, and it occupies an important position in the evolution of Chineseinfluences.architecture. Above all, it remains purely oriental and traditional, without external 4. The Temple, Cemetery, and Mansion are famous for their uniqueness and longenlightenment to bear on global development and the social advancement of mankind.The buildings were designed and built with meticulous care according to the ideas ofConfucianism. They are masterpieces that embody the highest achievements of Chineseemployed to apply their great skills in the adornment of the Temple. Similarly, in the mostarchitecture and art. In the Ming Period many outstanding artists and craftsmen wereprosperous period of the Qing Dynasty Imperial craftsmen were assigned to build the5. The layout of the Temple is designed to focus upon the main building. The complexDacheng Hall and Gate and the Qin Hall, which are universally considered to represent thepinnacle of Qing art and architecture.politics, and ethics, as well as the material world - combined with honesty, sincerity, andis intimately linked with its surronnding wooded landscape, whilst within there is an elaborate hierarchy in the disposition of the individual components. Above all, harmonyprevails, illustrating the Confucian ideal of harmony in every aspect of life - philosophy,moderation. 6. Although Confucius died over 2400 years ago, his philosophy still exerts a profoundinto the 21st century, they must go back 2500 years to draw upon the wisdom ofinfluence, not only in China but also in all parts of the world. The essence of his creed isthe system of benevolence, to meet the needs of human existence and evolution. TheConfucius �?.declaration of the 1988 Nobel Prize ceremony asserted that “If mankind wishes to surviveMap 3. Project area, highlighting Qufu and Zoucheng. The distance between the two cities7. The Temple of Confucius, the Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion are not only outstanding representatives of oriental architectural skills, but they also have aenduring and rich culturaI heritage of Confucianism will assuredly bring valuabledeep historical content and are an important part of the cultural heritage of mankind. The 8. The protection of Confucius Temple, Confucius Forest and Confucius Mansion couldbe traced back to more than 2,000 years ago. Since Han Dynasty (2nd Century B.C.), theyhave been under the state protection. Confucius Temple underwent more than 90 timesexpansion and repairs. In 1513 (8th year of Zhengde in Ming Dynasty), the seat of theConfucius, Forest more than 30 times and Confucius Mansion more than 20 times of9. Since 1949, especially since 1978, the State and local governments have not onlycounty was moved for the purpose of guarding the Confucius Temple, thus the position ofthe temple in the central part of the city was highlighted.maintenance of ancient buildings. They have also paid great attention to the protection ofworked to protect the cultural relics, but also put in huge sum of investment into thethe general background of the cultural relics. In 1982, the State Council of the People’sconstruction control zones for Confucius Temple, Confucius Forest and ConfuciusRepublic of China designated Qufu as one of the first batch of national-level famoushistorical and cultural cities. In 1987, the city delimited the protection scope and10. In May 2001, the city government in 1995 passed the Views of the Qufu CityMansion. In August 1994, the government made known and reiterated the protection scopes and construction zones for the cultural relic sites. The Measures of Qufu City forprovisions.the Protection and Management of Cultural Relics issued in May 1995 also had the similar People’s Government on Further Improving the Cultural Relics Work. Therefore, the legalMap 2. Shandong Province, Jining Municipality highlighted in dark blue below:protection over the property has been active and effective. There does not exist thepressure from dismantling or rebuilding, or the possibility that may affect the authenticityor integrity due to social development. Annex 4: Maps of the Project AreaMap 4. Detailed map of Ming Dynasty walled city of Qufu, covering an area of 1.67 km2:Map 1. China, Shandong Province highlighted in red is about 20 km.